In this episode of Syntax, Scott and Wes talk about the basics of building a website — how to get started for beginners!
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04:20 - HTML
- HTML is the language you write to get text and elements to show up on the screen
- Elements can describe the content they contain
- Or be structural and describe the areas of the website
- header, footer
- Listen to our ep on HTML elements to learn more about them: Syntax 354: The Surprisingly Exciting World of HTML Elements
- HTML elements have default styling applied to them before you write any CSS
- This comes from the browser and can be manipulated
- However, by default all elements are either block or inline-display
08:11 - CSS
- If HTML is the bones, CSS is the clothes and skin
- CSS dictates how a website looks
- Without CSS, you have text on a blank page and images
- CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets ("cascading" being the key word)
- Adding CSS to a page
- Link tag
- Style tag
- Inline styles
- You can select an element on the page via element, class, id, attribute
- Syntax is selector, brackets, property, value
- A property is what you are changing (e.g. background-color)
- Value determines how the thing looks
- Specificity is a big part of the cascade. When you apply one style to something, you need to learn how to target things appropriately. This is a huge part of being good at CSS.
- People develop systems like BEM to organize this
- General rules - Use elements for base styling and classes for specific styling. Don't use IDs for styling.
!importantexists to override everything, but as a general rule, NEVER use it. Seriously.
- Some interaction
- hover, active, focus
- Pseudo selectors
- You'll often see people reaching for libraries to make CSS easier and more consistent
- Common examples are Bootstrap, Foundation, and TailwindCSS
- For the most part you'll want to avoid these until you have a good understanding of the cascade, how CSS works, and how to write good CSS.
- In addition to properties, you can now write your own custom properties for CSS.
- While this could be seen as an advanced technique, I believe the new normal is CSS variables first.
- CSS variables are indicated by
—variableName: value;where variable name takes the place of a property.
- You can then use the variable via var(—variableName) in place of a property. This allows for easy duplication of same values across your style sheet.
- It makes your website dynamic
- We have a base programming language that has nothing to do with HTML
- It has things like:
- Variables - ways to store things
- Numbers + Math
- Data Containers - Objects and Arrays
- Functions - Code grouped together to achieve a certain purpose
- Formatting time + money
- Alerting the user
- Logging a value to developer tools
- Capitalizing things
- Sorting lists of things
- Round or randomize numbers
- Fetch data
- Talk to a sever
- Logic and flow control
- When the HTML is loaded, it's parsed into something called the DOM (Document Object Model)
- When you click something and want something else to happen
- There are lots of events
- mouse, touch, pointer
- Submit, change, keyboard, etc.
- Can be used to fetch data
fetch()- you'll often hear it called Ajax, or XMLHttpRequest
- Can be used to make more HTML
- Whole set of APIs for creating elements
- The DOM can be traversed
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